GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Adult stem cell—See somatic stem cell.
Astrocyte—A type of supporting (glial) cell found in the nervous system.
Blastocyst—A preimplantation embryo of about 150 cells produced by cell division following fertilization. The blastocyst is a sphere made up of an outer layer of cells (the trophoblast), a fluid-filled cavity (the blastocoel), and a cluster of cells on the interior (the inner cell mass).
Bone marrow stromal cells—A population of cells found in bone marrow that are different from blood cells.
Bone marrow stromal stem cells (skeletal stem cells)—A multipotent subset of bone marrow stromal cells able to form bone, cartilage, stromal cells that support blood formation, fat and fibrous tissue.
Cell-based therapies—Treatment in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cells or tissues.
Cell division—Method by which a single cell divides to create two cells. There are two main types of cell division depending on what happens to the chromosomes: mitosis and meiosis.
Chromosome—A structure consisting of DNA and regulatory proteins found in the nucleus of the cell. The DNA in the nucleus is usually divided up among several chromosomes. The number of chromosomes in the nucleus varies depending on the species of the organism. Humans have 46 chromosomes.
Clone— (v) To generate identical copies of a region of a DNA molecule or to generate genetically identical copies of a cell, or organism; (n) The identical molecule, cell, or organism that results from the cloning process.
- In reference to DNA: To clone a gene, one finds the region where the gene resides on the DNA and copies that section of the DNA using laboratory techniques.
- In reference to cells grown in a tissue culture dish:a clone is a line of cells that is genetically identical to the originating cell. This cloned line is produced by cell division (mitosis) of the original cell.
- In reference to organisms: Many natural clones are produced by plants and (mostly invertebrate) animals. The term clone may also be used to refer to an animal produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) or parthenogenesis.
Cord blood stem cells—See Umbilical cord blood stem cells.
Culture medium—The liquid that covers cells in a culture dish and contains nutrients to nourish and support the cells. Culture medium may also include growth factors added to produce desired changes in the cells.
Differentiation—The process whereby an unspecialized cell acquires the features of a specialized cell such as a heart, liver, or muscle cell. Differentiation is controlled by the interaction of a cell’s genes with the physical and chemical conditions outside the cell, usually through signaling pathways involving proteins embedded in the cell surface.
Directed differentiation—The manipulation of stem cell culture conditions to induce differentiation into a particular cell type.
DNA—Deoxyribonucleic acid, a chemical found primarily in the nucleus of cells. DNA carries the instructions or blueprint for making all the structures and materials the body needs to function. DNA consists of both genes and non-gene DNA in between the genes.
Embryo—In humans, the developing organism from the time of fertilization until the end of the eighth week of gestation, when it is called a fetus.
Embryonic stem cells—Primitive (undifferentiated) cells that are derived from preimplantation-stage embryos, are capable of dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture, and are known to develop into cells and tissues of the three primary germ layers.
Embryonic stem cell line—Embryonic stem cells which have been cultured under in vitro conditions that allow proliferation without differentiation for months to years.
Enucleated—Having had its nucleus removed.
Epigenetic—Having to do with the process by which regulatory proteins can turn genes on or off in a way that can be passed on during cell division.
Fetus—In humans, the developing human from approximately eight weeks after conception until the time of its birth.
Gamete—An egg (in the female) or sperm (in the male) cell. See also Somatic cell.
Gene—A functional unit of heredity that is a segment of DNA found on chromosomes in the nucleus of a cell. Genes direct the formation of an enzyme or other protein.
Hematopoietic stem cell—A stem cell that gives rise to all red and white blood cells and platelets.
Human embryonic stem cell (hESC)—A type of pluripotent stem cells derived from early stage human embryos, up to and including the blastocyst stage, that are capable of dividing without differentiating for a prolonged period in culture, and are known to develop into cells and tissues of the three primary germ layers.
Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)—An adult stem cell that has been genetically altered to behave more like an embryonic stem cell, or pluripotent (capable of forming many tissue types).
In vitro—Latin for “in glass”; in a laboratory dish or test tube; an artificial environment.
In vitro fertilization—A technique that unites the egg and sperm in a laboratory instead of inside the female body.
Long-term self-renewal—The ability of stem cells to replicate themselves by dividing into the same non-specialized cell type over long periods (many months to years) depending on the specific type of stem cell.
Mesenchymal stem cells—A term that is currently used to define non-blood adult stem cells from a variety of tissues, although it is not clear that mesenchymal stem cells from different tissues are the same.
Microenvironment—The molecules and compounds such as nutrients and growth factors in the fluid surrounding a cell in an organism or in the laboratory, which play an important role in determining the characteristics of the cell.
Mitosis—The type of cell division that allows a population of cells to increase its numbers or to maintain its numbers. The number of chromosomes remains the same in this type of cell division.
Multipotent—Having the ability to develop into more than one cell type of the body. See also pluripotent and totipotent.
Neural stem cell—A stem cell found in adult tissue of the brain and spinal cord that can give rise to neurons and glial (supporting) cells. Examples of glial cells include astrocytes and oligodendrocytes.
Neurons—Nerve cells, the principal functional units of the central nervous system. A neuron consists of a cell body and its processes—an axon and one or more dendrites. Neurons transmit information to other neurons or cells by releasing neurotransmitters at synapses.
Oligodendrocyte—A supporting cell that provides insulation to nerve cells by forming a myelin sheath (a fatty layer) around axons.
Parthenogenesis—The artificial activation of an egg in the absence of a sperm; the egg begins to divide as if it has been fertilized.
Passage—In cell culture, the process in which cells are disassociated, washed, and seeded into new culture vessels after a round of cell growth and proliferation. The number of passages a line of cultured cells has gone through is an indication of its age and expected stability.
Pluripotent—The state of a single cell that is capable of differentiating into all tissues of an organism, but is not capable of sustaining full development of an organism on its own.
Preimplantation—With regard to an embryo, preimplantation means that the embryo has not yet implanted in the wall of the uterus. Human embryonic stem cells are derived from preimplantation-stage embryos fertilized outside a woman’s body (in vitro).
Proliferation—Expansion of the number of cells by the continuous division of single cells into two identical daughter cells.
Regenerative medicine—A field of medicine devoted to treatments in which stem cells are induced to differentiate into the specific cell type required to repair damaged or destroyed cell populations or tissues. (See also cell-based therapies).
Reproductive cloning—The process of using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce a normal, full grown organism (e.g., animal) genetically identical to the organism (animal) that donated the somatic cell nucleus. In mammals, this would require implanting the resulting embryo in a uterus where it would undergo normal development to become a live independent being. The first mammal to be created by reproductive cloning was Dolly the sheep, born at the Roslin Institute in Scotland in 1996. See also Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).
Signals—Internal and external factors that control changes in cell structure and function. They can be chemical or physical in nature.
Somatic cell—Any body cell other than gametes (egg or sperm); sometimes referred to as “adult” cells. See also Gamete.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT)—A technique that combines an enucleated egg and the nucleus of a somatic cell to make an embryo. SCNT can be used for therapeutic or reproductive purposes, but the initial stage that combines an enucleated egg and a somatic cell nucleus is the same. See also therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning.
Somatic (adult) stem cells—A relatively rare undifferentiated cell found in many organs and differentiated tissues with a limited capacity for both self renewal (in the laboratory) and differentiation. Such cells vary in their differentiation capacity, but it is usually limited to cell types in the organ of origin. This is an active area of investigation.
Stem cells—Cells with the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells.
Stromal cells—Connective tissue cells found in virtually every organ. In bone marrow, stromal cells support blood formation.
Subculturing—Transferring cultured cells, with or without dilution, from one culture vessel to another.
Surface markers—Proteins on the outside surface of a cell that are unique to certain cell types and that can be visualized using antibodies or other detection methods.
Telomere— The end of a chromosome, associated with a characteristic DNA sequence that is replicated in a special way. A telomere counteracts the tendency of the chromosome to shorten with each round of replication.
Teratoma—A multi-layered benign tumor that grows from pluripotent cells injected into mice with a dysfunctional immune system. Scientists test whether they have established a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) line by injecting putative stem cells into such mice and verifying that the resulting teratomas contain cells derived from all three embryonic germ layers.
Therapeutic cloning—The process of using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce cells that exactly match a patient. By combining a patient’s somatic cell nucleus and an enucleated egg, a scientist may harvest embryonic stem cells from the resulting embryo that can be used to generate tissues that match a patient’s body. This means the tissues created are unlikely to be rejected by the patient’s immune system. See also Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT).
Totipotent—Having the ability to give rise to all the cell types of the body plus all of the cell types that make up the extraembryonic tissues such as the placenta. (See also Pluripotent and Multipotent).
Transdifferentiation—The process by which stem cells from one tissue differentiate into cells of another tissue.
Umbilical cord blood stem cells—Stem cells collected from the umbilical cord at birth that can produce all of the blood cells in the body (hematopoietic). Cord blood is currently used to treat patients who have undergone chemotherapy to destroy their bone marrow due to cancer or other blood-related disorders.
Undifferentiated—A cell that has not yet developed into a specialized cell type.